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【雅思培训】雅思阅读段落标题配对题的一种特殊解法


郑州朗阁雅思培训中心的专家认为:在雅思阅读的各类考题中,如果要评选一下“烤鸭”们心中觉得难度较大的雅思阅读题型,段落标题配对题(paragraph headings)一定能够榜上有名。作为一个以高度概括性和完全替换性为特点的题型,相信许多同学都曾经或正在为它伤透脑筋。很多“烤鸭”说,考试时间有限,根本静不下心来仔细看一段一段的文章,何况还要概括总结出各段的核心大意;而且一不小心还会发生“连环出错”的惨剧。所以,一看到这种题型,首先心里就凉了半截。其实,“烤鸭”们可以调整好心态——越是麻烦的题型才越值得我们去钻研,当我们想出一些办法的时候也会更有成就感。关于段落信息匹配题的一般解法这里暂时不多赘述,接下来郑州朗阁雅思培训中心的专家就来讨论一种不同于一般解法的方式,探究一部分较为特殊的headings。


 
我们知道,相对于中文,英语写作会更加讲求逻辑连贯,尤其是选入雅思阅读材料的英语文章,更是优秀英文写作的代表,它们往往选编于英美国家一些主要报刊杂志,如Economist, New Scientist等。那么这种写作特点对于我们解答段落标题配对题又有什么启发呢?


 
“烤鸭”们在练习雅思写作的时候,老师一定会说,提出观点以后,要举例或引用来证明这个观点,论证好了才能开始说下一个观点。这是一篇逻辑完整的英语写作文章最基本的要求。那么这个道理放在雅思阅读文章中也同样适用,也就是说,如果在某一段文章中出现了引用某种观点或结论的句子,我们就可以据此判断该段中想要说明的重要论点是什么了。


 
例如,剑桥雅思真题6 Test 4 Passage 1 “Doctoring sales”的E段,段落中引用了一位医生的话,“‘I've been the recipient of golf balls from one company and I use them, but it doesn't make me prescribe their medicine,' says one doctor. ‘I tend to think I'm not influenced by what they give me.’” 这名医生表达了自己虽然用了医药公司送的小礼物,但是并不会在开药方时受到影响。那么这段的主要内容就很明确了,对应前面的heading为“I. Not all doctors are persuaded.”



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在文章段落中出现引用的格式主要有这样三类:


 
1. sb. + “……”(直接引语)
 
例如剑桥雅思真题6 Test 1 Passage 3 “Climate Change and the Inuit”的F段中直接引用了这样一句话:
‘In the early days scientists ignored us when they came up here to study anything. They just figured these people don't know very much so we won't ask them,’ says John Amagoalik, an Inuit leader and politician. 'But in recent years IQ has had much more credibility and weight.’
 
值得说明的是,本段中的IQ不是一般意义上的智商,前文中说明过:And Western scientists are starting to draw on this wisdom, increasingly referred to as ‘Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit’, or IQ.——也就是Inuit人们的智慧。根据John Amagoalik的说法,早期来此研究的科学家认为当地的Inuit是“don't know very much”, 但是后来到最近几年情况发生了改变,IQ获得了更多的“credibility and weight”, 即可信度和重要性。所以,根据这个直接引语,我们很快就能选出前面对应的heading: IV. Respect for Inuit opinion grows。


 
2. sb. say/ claim/ argue/ believe/…that…
 
例如剑桥雅思真题7 Test 1 Passage 2 “Making Every Drop Count”中的E段中有这样几句话:
At the outset of the new millennium, however, the way resource planners think about water is beginning to change. The focus is slowly shifting back to the provision of basic human and environmental needs as top priority - ensuring 'some for all,' instead of 'more for some'. Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities, which is increasingly considered the option of last, not first, resort.


 
这道题目的情况稍微复杂一些,出现引用的其实是“Some water experts are now demanding that…”这句间接引语。如果有对同义替换非常熟练的“烤鸭”,应该已经能够看出这里water experts和前面heading的选项 I. Scientists' call for a revision of policy里面的scientists对应了。再加上本段从第一句就开始出现的change, shifting, instead, rather than等词,反复传达“改变,变动”的意思,对应选项中的revision。当然我们也可以仔细分析一下间接引语的那句话:当前,一些水利专家正在要求应该更好地运用现有的水利设施,而非一味兴修新的设备。这句话的潜台词就是说,以前大家普遍的做法是后者而非前者,所以就是要修改现有的措施。这样也就不难选出Scientists' call for a revision of policy这个选项来了。
 
3. a report/ survey/ research/ experiment/ … find/ suggest/ show/… that…
 
例如剑桥雅思真题6 Test 2 Passage 1 “Advantages of public transport”的D段:
Newman believes one of the best studies on how cities built for cars might be converted to rail use is The Urban Village report, which used Melbourne as an example. It found that pushing everyone into the city centre was not the best approach. Instead, the proposal advocated the creation of urban villages at hundreds of sites, mostly around railway stations.
 
本段较为简单易懂,第一句话点出了一个重要文件The Urban Village report, 第二句话是重点,也是引用内容所在,讲到这个report发现了什么结果,即pushing everyone into the city centre was not the best approach, 把大家都赶到市中心去并不见得好。所以,这就对应了选项中的I. Avoiding an overcrowded centre。
 
又例如剑桥雅思真题6 Test 4 Passage 1 “Doctoring sales”的E段:
Free samples of new and expensive drugs might be the single most effective way of getting doctors and patients to become loyal to a product. Salespeople hand out hundreds of dollars' worth of samples each week- $7.2 billion worth of them in one year. Though few comprehensive studies have been conducted, one by the University of Washington investigated how drug sample availability affected what physicians prescribe. A total of 131 doctors self-reported their prescribing patterns - the conclusion was that the availability of samples led them to dispense and prescribe drugs that differed from their preferred drug choice.
 
段落中引用了华盛顿大学的一项调查,调查发现药品推销时发放的样品确实可以影响医生开药方时的选择,所以对应了选项VII. Research shows that promotion works。
 
当然,郑州朗阁雅思培训中心的专家认为:这种另辟蹊径的解题方法还是有局限性的,只能适用于一部分较为特殊的段落,也就是在段落中出现了引用某人的观点或引用某个实验、研究的结论,我们才能用这个思路去解题。但是由于英语文章强调逻辑性,所以有不少文章段落还是会出现这种特征。“烤鸭”们在今后的做题过程中也可以慢慢去探索。


 

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