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【托福培训】深度解析托福长难句之定语篇


托福阅读中,大家最不陌生的就是长难句了,一个句子动辄几十词,在各种名词前后缀满了修饰成分,今天我们就来看一看如何处理这种类型的句子。

定语顾名思义,是修饰名词这样一个静态对象的成分。不像状语,是修饰动态动作的成分。

以形容词、介词短语、非谓语动词和定语从句为主,在托福阅读长难句中,往往它们会复合出现。按照正常的英译汉的思路,应该是所有的定语都前置到被修饰名词前面。但是根据托福阅读特点我们分以下几种情况来分别对待。


1 介词短语做定语


 The hostility of the indigenous population to North American influences decreased in recent years .

此句中,我们把所有的介词短语前置到hostility前面,翻译为:

今年来土着人口对北美影响的敌意日渐减少。


The influence of prehistoric inhabitants on Amazonian natural story can not be ignored .

史前居民对亚马逊自然历史的影响不容忽视。


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The greatest outcome of the discovery of the reaction principle was that space travel became a reality .

反作用原理发现的最大成果是太空旅行成为了现实。


2 如果是定语从句插在句子中间,同样前置到被修饰名词之前翻译


In one experiment, subjects aged 6 to 22 were shown drawings of female faces that had different sized pupils.

在一个实验中,给6到22岁的实验对象展示有着不同大小瞳孔的女性脸庞的图片。


For example ,one graphic illustration to which children might readily relate is the estimate that rainforests are being destroyed at a rate equivalent to one thousand football fields every forty minutes --about the duration of a normal classroom period.

举例来说,一个孩子们很容易联系起来的图例就是热带雨林正在以每40分钟(正常的一节课的时长)消失一千个足球场的速度被破坏着。


Thanks to modern irrigation ,crops now grow abundantly in areas where once nothing but cacti and sagebrush could live.

多亏现代农业技术,庄稼能很好地生长在原来只能存活仙人掌的地方。


3 但是更多时候我们看到的句子定从放在后面了,而且由于定语从句中有状语等其他成分的存在使得句子很长,前置翻译就变的不现实了,这时我们会采用破句的方法来翻译。即先翻译从句,然后再翻译从句。


Quails typically have short rounded wings that enable them to spring into full flight instantly when disturbed in their hiding places.

此句中,从wings 后面就是定从了,定从里面还有个状语,所以我们就用破句来翻译。

鹌鹑有着短而圆的翅膀,当在藏身地被打扰时,这翅膀能让它们迅速全力起飞。


Fungi are important in the process of decay ,which returns ingredients to the soil, enhances soil fertility , and decomposes animal debris.

真菌在腐化过程中非常重要,它能讲养分还给土壤,促进土壤肥沃性,分解动物尸体。


Television the most pervasive and persuasive of modern technologies , marked by rapid change and growth , is moving into a new era , an era of extraordinary sophistication and versatility , which promises to reshape our lives and our world.


迅速增长的也是最普遍和最有说服力的高科技---电视,正在进入一个充满智慧和多功能性的新纪元,这些特征肯定能重新塑造我们的生活和世界。

 At Beth Israel each patient is assigned to a primary nurse who visits at length with the patient and constructs a full-scale health account that covers everything from his medical history to his emotional state.

在Beth Israel ,每一个病人都会被指派给一个实习护士,他/她会和病人做深度沟通并且监理一个全面的健康账户,这个健康账户涵盖了从就诊史到情绪状态的多有事情。


长难句的本质还是英译汉,我们汉语其实是不太有长句子的,我们喜欢说一个个的短句子,这丝毫不影响我们表词达意。所以当遇到定语在后面而且复合的很长的时候,同学们一定要记得将它们拆开来翻译。接下来大家随便打开一个TPO都可以找到长定语的句子,自己练习一下吧。


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