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【托福培训】新托福口语Task 6难点解析及答题技巧


托福口语考试一共有6道题目,分为两种形式:独立型和综合型。今天我们要探讨的是口语的第六题,即综合型题目里的最后一道。不同于第一和第二道题目的纯口语回答,也不同于综合型题目中第三和第四道题目里的听读结合,第六题要求考生先听一篇关于某话题的学术讲座,然后概括从讲座中获取的信息,通常是某个科学概念或者现象。今天我们将结合真题,就第六道题的考点及答题要点进行深入的探讨。


一、考察方向
新托福口语的第六道题,通常被考生视为难度最大的一道,就是因为它的考察形式--总结听到的1-2分钟的学术讲座。难点体现在两个方面:1. 纯粹的听力内容使听力较弱的考生无所适从;2. 学术讲座的专业性太强,如果考生不熟悉讲座的方向,会听得云里雾里。朗阁海外考试研究中心分析认为,其实此题也是有章可循的:讲座通常围绕一个学术概念展开,然后给出此概念的定义,并运用具体的例子来对此概念进行补充,或给出实验的过程来论证此科学概念的科学性;或者,会围绕着一个科学现象展开,继而给出产生此现象的原因以及影响。因此,常见的提问方式如下:



1. Using points and examples from the talk, explain the two definitions of money presented by the professor.
2. Using points and examples from the talk, explain the two types of motivation.
3. Using the examples from the talk, explain how persuasive strategies are used in advertising.
4. Using the research described by the professor, explain what scientists have learned about the mathematical abilities of babies.
前两种提问方法常出现在概念--定义型的讲座中,而后两种提问方法常出先在实验型的讲座中。备考的考生须知,在听讲座的过程中,是看不到问题的。在讲座结束后,屏幕上会显示如上的问题,同时会有narrator将问题读出,以便考生熟悉题目中关键词的读音。



二、评分标准


那么考官是如何评分的呢?《新托福口语考试官方指南》指出第六题的评分标准是:考生需要充分展示自己的语言表达(发音)和语言运用(语法及词汇)能力,能“完整地回答问题”。许多考生在规定时间内无法完成回答,因为他们在概念总结上花费了太多的时间。若回答“遗漏关键信息”或“没有对重要信息展开论述”,那么评分人会只给2分。记住,第六题想要得高分,考生的回答要持续(很少或者没有不恰当的停顿)并且连贯(逻辑流畅),容易使人理解。




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三、讲座内容


Task 6的讲座通常为90-120秒,有些话题可能持续的时间更长,会超过2分钟。在讲座中,教授通常会先介绍一个概念或现象,然后一般情况下,会用两个例子或者两个下级分类来进行深入的解释。而有关于一个实验过程的讲座可能会描述一个过程的两个步骤。在讲述一件事件的讲座中,教授可能会描述一个事件的前因后果。在关于某科学社会理论的讲座中,教授则会举出一些例子来说明这一理论在日常生活中起的作用及对人们日常生活产生的影响。
 
由于第六道题目是纯粹的听力讲座而没有阅读材料,那么讲座中的主要内容通常情况下是会在第一句话中体现出来的。有时候教授会非常直接明显地点明话题,例如:Today we’ll talk about how companies determine the initial prices for their products. 然后教授会讲述主要概念涉及的过程或者基本原理及举例。

综上所述,在新托福口语的听力中,会存在非常明显的规律,在考生听懂大方向的情况下,不难将讲座的outline找出。让我们来看一篇新托福TPO真题。



So, let’s talk about money. What is money? Well, typically people think of coins and paper “bills” as money... but that’s using a somewhat narrow definition of the term.
 
A broad definition is this: money is anything that people can use to make purchases with. Since many things can be used to make purchases, money can have many different forms. Certainly, coins and bills are one form of money. People exchange goods and services for coins or paper bills, and they use this money ... these bills ... to obtain other goods and services. For example, you might give a taxi driver five dollars to purchase a ride in his taxi. And he in turn gives the five dollars to a farmer to buy some vegetables...
 
But, as I said, coins and bills aren’t the only form of money under this broad definition. Some societies make use of a barter system. Basically, in a barter system people exchange goods and services directly for other goods and services. The taxi driver, for example, might give a ride to a farmer in exchange for some vegetables. Since the vegetables are used to pay for a service, by our broad definition the vegetables are used in barter as a form of money.
 
Now, as I mentioned, there’s also a second ... a narrower definition of money. In the United States only coins and bills are legal tender—meaning that by law, a seller must accept them as payment. The taxi driver must accept coins or bills as payment for a taxi ride. OK? But in the U.S., the taxi driver is not required to accept vegetables in exchange for a ride. So a narrower definition of money might be whatever is legal tender in a society, whatever has to be accepted as payment.
 
Using points and examples from the talk, explain the two definitions of money presented by the professor.



有了这样的一个outline后,考生需要提取出来的关键内容为:



-- A broad definition is this: money is anything that people can use to make purchases with.
-- Coins and bills are one form of money.
-- In a barter system people exchange goods and services directly for other goods and services.
-- So a narrower definition of money might be whatever is legal tender in a society, whatever has to be accepted as payment.
-- In the United States only coins and bills are legal tender-meaning that by law, a seller must accept them as payment.


 
如考生能够抓住以上几句关键句,那么在结合了例子之后,就可以有一份非常完美的答案了。例如,综合上述关键点,高分例文为:



The professor talks about two definitions of money, a broad one and a narrow one. By the broad definition, money is everything with which we can make purchases. For example, coins and bills can be money, because we can use them to buy goods such as vegetables and pay for services such as taxi. But in a barter system, vegetables can be money, because farmers can give drivers vegetables in exchange for a drive. By the narrow definition, in a society, the legal tender is money. For instance, in the US, drivers and farmers must accept dollars as payment. People can use dollars to pay for taxi and buy vegetables because dollar is the legal tender in the US. So, dollar in the form of coin and bill is money.


此范文逻辑清晰,并包含了讲座的各个方面,亦可为考生提供一定的关于定义类的模板:总起句引出话题--第二句讲两个下级分类--关键的定义及举例。一份完整的答案需要包含文中所提到的各个方面。例如,在讲述广义的定义时,教授提到两个方面的内容--传统的纸币及硬币和在以物换物社会下的任何物品。



四、答题技巧


1. 避免原句照搬阅读和听力内容,适当进行词汇和语法的替换。
 
2. 学会记笔记。



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